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Tandem selection:  Selection for one trait at a time. When the desired level is reached in one trait, then selection is practiced for a second trait. Temperament (disposition):  A measure of the relative docility, wildness, or aggression of an animal toward unfamiliar situations, human handlers, or management interventions. Terminal sires:  Sires used in a crossbreeding system in which all of the progeny, both male and female, are marketed. For example F, crossbred dams could be bred to terminal sires of a third breed and all calves marketed. Although this system allows maximum heterosis and complementary of breeds, replacement females must come from other herds. Threshold model:  Statistical procedures for analyzing traits that are expressed in an all-or-none fashion (alive vs dead or pregnant vs open, for example) but that probably are affected by environmental factors and by genes at many loci. When genetic predictions are conducted for such traits using the threshold model, resultant EPDs reflect the expected proportion of an individual's progeny that will vs will not express the trait. Transcription:  The process by which an RNA copy is made from a gene. Translation:  The process by which ribosomes use the nucleotide sequence in RNA to synthesize proteins. Ultrasonic measurements:  A non-invasive method used to estimate carcass characteristics and reproductive events. It operates off the principle that sound waves echo differently with different densities of tissue. USDA yield grade:  Measurements of carcass cutability categorized into numerical categories with 1 being the leanest and 5 being the fattest. Yield grade and cutability are predicted from the same four carcass traits. Variance:  Variance is a statistic that numerically describes the differences among individuals for a trait in a population. Without variation, no genetic progress would be possible, since genetically superior animals would not be distinguishable from genetically inferior ones. VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats):  A type of minisatellite that is locus specific but cannot be generated by PCR. Weight per day of age (WDA):  Weight of an individual divided by its age in days. Whole Herd Reporting (WHR):  An inventory based performance recording system in which the production of all animals in a breeding herd and the performance of all progeny are accounted for annually. In calf-based systems, by contrast, progeny performance data may be recorded selectively and production information is not gathered on females who do not produce live calves. An inventory based Whole Herd Reporting system is necessary to acquire the data for genetic evaluation of some reproductive traits. Yield grade (see cutability):  A numerical score ranging from 1 (high yield) to 5 (low yield) reflecting the expected proportion of boneless, closely-trimmed cuts from the beef carcass. It is estimated from a USDA prediction equation that includes measured or estimated values for hot carcass weight, rib eye area, fat thickness, and estimated percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat.
Source: Beef Improvement Federation
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