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Palatability:  Acceptable to the taste or sufficiently agreeable in flavor to be eaten. Parturition:  The act of giving birth; calving. Pedigree:  A tabulation of names of an individual's ancestors, usually only those of the three to five closest generations. Pedigree information is used to establish genetic relationships among individuals to use in genetic evaluations. Percent calf crop:  The percentage cows and heifers exposed to breeding within a herd and year that produce calves. Performance data:  The record of the individual animal for reproduction, production, or carcass merit. The most useful performance records for management, selection, and promotion decisions will vary among purebred breeders and for purebred breeders compared with commercial cattle producers. Performance pedigree:  A pedigree that includes performance records of the individual, ancestors, relatives, and progeny in addition to the usual pedigree information. Expected progeny differences may also be included. Performance testing:  The systematic collection of comparative production information Phenotype:  The visible or measurable expression of a character; weaning weight, postweaning gain, or reproduction for example. For most traits, phenotype is influenced by both genotype and environment. The relative degree to which phenotypic variation among individuals is caused by transmissible genetic effects is the heritability of a trait Phenotypic correlation:  The net correlation between two traits caused both by genetic factors and environmental factors simultaneously influencing both traits. Plasmid:  A circular piece of bacterial DNA often used as a cloning vector to produce recombinant DNA in large quantities. Polled:  Naturally hornless cattle. Having no horns or scurs. Polymerase:  The enzyme system that facilitates the replication of DNA or RNA. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR):  A process used to rapidly amplify DNA. The original DNA is heated, causing the strands to separate. Specific primers are then added and bond to the single strands. DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the primer, extending the new DNA strand. The PCR process can be repeated to produce many copies. Polymorphism:  The existence of two or more alleles at a gene locus in a population. Possible change:  The amount by which an individual's current EPD might reasonably be expected to change (either upwards or downwards) as more information becomes available in subsequent national cattle evaluations. This measurement of error in prediction decreases as the number of offspring per sire increases. Postpartum:  After the birth of an individual. Postpartum interval:  The number of days between parturition and the first postpartum estrus. Prepotency:  The ability of a parent to transmit its characteristics to its offspring so that they resemble that parent, and one another, more than usual. An individual that is homozygous for a dominant allele will show pre-potency for the trait controlled by that gene, but not necessarily for any other trait. Inbred cattle, having a higher than average degree of homozygosity, may be more pre-potent than outbred cattle but only for simply inherited or highly heritable traits. Preweaning gain:  Weight gained between birth and weaning. Progeny:  The young, or offspring, of the parents. Progeny testing:  Evaluating the genotype or estimating the breeding value of an individual by evaluating the comparative phenotypic merit of its progeny. Puberty:  The age at which the reproductive organs become functionally operative and secondary sex characteristics begin to develop. Purebred:  An animal of known ancestry within a recognized breed that is eligible for registry in the official herd book of that breed.
Source: Beef Improvement Federation
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