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Maintenance energy requirement:  The amount of feed energy required per day by an animal to maintain its body weight and support necessary metabolic functions. Marbling:  The specks of fat (intramuscular fat) distributed in muscular tissue. Marbling is usually evaluated in the rib eye between the 12th and 13th rib. It is a major factor in assigning USDA quality grade of a beef carcass. Marker Assisted Selection (MAS):  The use of genetic markers to select for specific alleles at linked QTLs and therefore specific traits. Maternal effect:  For weaning weight, the dam's maternal ability which influences preweaning growth.For weaning weight, the dam's maternal ability which influences preweaning growth. Maternal EPD:  An EPD representing the effect of the genes of an individual's daughters on the trait of interest. A calving ease maternal EPD, for example, represents the ease with which an individual's daughters calves are born. See also Direct EPD. Maternal heterosis:  Amount by which the average performance for a trait in the progeny of crossbred cows exceeds the average performance of progeny of purebred cows of the two or more breed ancestors of the crossbred cows. Maternal sires:  Sires whose major function is to sire daughters (often crossbreds) with outstanding genetic merit for reproductive and maternal traits, adaptability to prevailing environmental conditions, and longevity. Such females would ideally be crossed to sires of a terminal breed with all offspring marketed. Maturity:  An estimation of the physiological age of the animal or carcass. It is assigned by assessing muscle characteristics and the stage of bone maturity. Metabolic body size:  The weight of the animal raised to the 3/4 power (W0.75); a value indicative of the feed required to meet metabolic needs and maintain current body weight. Microsatellite:  A type of genetic marker. It is composed of repeating nucleotide sequences within DNA that are locus specific and variable in the number of times the sequence is repeated. Minisatellite:  A type of genetic marker widely used in DNA fingerprinting that consists of repeating subsets of nucleotides that are highly polymorphic and widely distributed throughout the genome. Morphology:  A parameter recorded during microscopic examination of semen in the standardized breeding soundness evaluation quantifying the visual characteristics of spermatozoa, expressed as the percentage that appear normal. Most Probable Producing Ability (MPPA):  An estimate of a cow's future superiority or inferiority for a repeatable trait (such as progeny weaning weight) based upon the cow's past production in comparison to her contemporaries, her number of past records, and the repeatability of the trait in question. Motility:  A parameter recorded during microscopic examination of semen in the standardized breeding soundness evaluation quantifying spermatozoa movement, expressed as the percentage demonstrating forward progressive motility. Multiple breed evaluation:  A genetic prediction simultaneously utilizing data from more than one breed or crossbred group. It accounts not only for differences among animals in transmissible genetic value (EPDs) but also in breed differences and heterosis effects. Multiple trait evaluation:  A genetic prediction in which phenotypic merit for two or more genetically correlated traits (birth weight, weaning weight, and post-weaning gain, for example) is used simultaneously to estimate breeding values for each of the traits. Compared to single trait evaluations, multiple trait evaluations produce EPDs with higher accuracy and less bias from selection. Multiplicative adjustment factors:  A numerical quantity by which an animal's record is multiplied to reflect expected performance if the animal had belonged to some baseline group. For example, if calves from mature dams weighed, on average, 8% more than calves from two-year-old dams, the multiplicative factor to adjust calves from two-year-old dams to a mature age-of-dam equivalent would be 1.08.
Source: Beef Improvement Federation
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