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Inbreeding:  The mating together of parents more closely related than average in the population. Inbreeding decreases the proportion of heterozygous gene pairs in the offspring and increases the proportion of homozygous gene pairs. It increases the frequency of expression of genetic defects caused by recessive genes. Inbreeding may increase prepotency for simply inherited and highly heritable traits. Inbreeding coefficient:  A numerical measure, ranging from zero to 1.0, of the intensity of inbreeding of an individual. It represents the proportion of gene loci in the individual at which both genes are identical copies of the same ancestral gene. Inbreeding depression:  The reduction in performance level for many economically important traits that accompanies, on average, the increase in inbreeding coefficient. Incomplete dominance:  A situation in which neither of two alleles at a locus is fully Independent culling levels:  Selection based on cattle meeting specific levels of performance for every trait included in a selection program. Equivalently, culling based on the failure of cattle to meet the required standard for any trait in the program. For example, a breeder could cull all heifers with weaning weights below 400 pounds (or those in the bottom 20% on weaning weight) and yearling weights below 650 pounds (or those in the bottom 40%). Indicator traits:  Traits that do not have direct economic importance, but aid in the prediction of economically important traits. Integrated resource management (IRM):  Producing beef cattle in a manner that efficiently, profitably, and sustainably uses available human and physical resources. Interim EPD:  An expected progeny difference computed from an individual's own performance information and(or) the EPDs of its parents. Interim EPDs may be used to support selection and merchandizing decisions before EPDs from regularly scheduled national cattle evaluation runs become available. International cattle evaluation:  An evaluation utilizing data from more than one country, allowing comparisons of estimated genetic merit of cattle across countries. Intron:  DNA whose nucleotide sequence does not code for a product. An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing while the final mature RNA product of a gene is being generated. Kidney, pelvic and heart fat (KPH):  The internal carcass fat associated with the kidney, pelvic cavity, and heart. It is expressed as a percentage of chilled carcass weight. The weight of the kidneys is included in the estimate of kidney fat. Lactation:  The period of calf nursing between birth and weaning Lethal gene:  A gene or genes that cause the death of any individual in which they are expressed. Libido:  Sex drive. In bulls, the propensity to detect and mate estrous females. Linebreeding:  A form of inbreeding in which an attempt is made to concentrate the inheritance of some favored ancestor in descendants within a herd. The average relationship of the individuals in the herd to this ancestor is increased by linebreeding, but at the cost of an increased level of inbreeding. Linecross:  Offspring produced by crossing two or more inbred lines. Linkage:   The occurrence of two or more loci of interest on the same chromosome within 50 cM linkage distance of one another. Locus:  The specific location of a gene on a chromosome.
Source: Beef Improvement Federation
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