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F1:  Offspring resulting from the mating of a purebred (straight-bred) bull to purebred (straight-bred) females of another breed. Fat thickness:  Depth of fat in tenths of inches over the rib eye muscle at the 12th rib. It consists of a single measurement at a point three-fourths of the lateral length of the rib eye muscle from the split chine bone. Feed conversion (feed efficiency):  Units of feed consumed per unit of weight gained or (less commonly in the United States) production of meat or milk per unit of feed consumed. Fertilization:  The union of the male and female gametes to form a new, genetically unique individual. In cattle, sperm and egg cells with 30 chromosomes each combine to form a zygote with the 60 chromosomes normal to the species. Fingerprint (DNA:  Pattern of DNA fragments unique to an individual. Often produced by using restriction enzymes to cut the DNA into fragments at specific sequences of nucleotides. Using electrophoresis, these fragments can be sorted and then visualized, forming a unique ‘fingerprint’ for each different animal. Frame score:  A score based on subjective evaluation or actual measurement of hip height. This score is related to slaughter weights at which cattle should grade choice or at which different groups of cattle should have comparable amounts of fat. Freemartin:  Female born twin to a bull calf (approximately 9 out of10 will be infertile). Gel (gel matrix):  A porous substance that allows DNA fragments to migrate through it at a rate inversely proportional to fragment size, this allowing separation of DNA fragments. Gene:  A gene is a discrete segment of the DNA molecule, located at a specific site (its locus) on a specific chromosome pair. Two copies of each gene exist in each nucleated diploid cell in an animal. Only one gene of each pair is randomly transmitted to the offspring through the gamete. The unique nucleotide sequence of each gene determines its specific biological role. Gene marker:  A specific sequence of nucleotides that is easily detectable and can be used to differentiate among alleles at a locus. General purpose breed:  A breed with acceptable genetic merit in reproductive, maternal, growth, and carcass traits, but not specialized in either terminal or maternal characteristics. Such breeds frequently are used in rotational crossbreeding programs. Generation interval:  Average age of parents when the offspring destined to replace them are born. It should be computed separately for male and female parents and then represents the average turnover rate of bulls and cows in the herd. When other factors are held constant, generation interval is inversely related to the rate of response to selection. That is, rapid generation turnover enhances rate of selection response. Genetic antagonism:  A genetic correlation in which desirable genetic change in one of the traits is accompanied by an undesirable change in the other. For example, because of the positive genetic correlation between milk yield potential and cow maintenance requirement, selection for increased milk would lead also to increased feed cost for maintenance. Genetic correlations:  Correlations between breeding values for two traits that arise because some of the same genes affect both of them. When two traits (weaning and yearling weight for example) are positively genetically correlated, successful selection for one trait will result in an increase in the other trait as well. When two traits are negatively genetically correlated (birth weight and calving ease, for example), successful selection for one trait will result in a decrease in the other. Genetic linkage map:  A diagram showing where genes and markers are located on a chromosome and their relationship to one another. Genetic trend:  An estimate of the annual change in genetic merit of individuals within Genome:  The entire complement of DNA characteristic to individuals of a species. Genotype:  The two alleles present at a locus in an individual. For a locus with only two alleles, three genotypes are possible. For example, at the polled/horned locus in cattle, two common alleles are P ( the dominant allele preventing growth of horns) and p (the recessive allele allowing horn growth). The three possible genotypes are PP (homozygous dominant), Pp (heterozygous or carrier), and pp (homozygous recessive). Gestation:  The period of pregnancy or the period of time from conception until young are born, averaging about 285 days in cattle.
Source: Beef Improvement Federation
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