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Ear tag:  Method of identification by attaching a tag to the ear. Economic value:  The net return within a herd for making a one unit change (pound or percentage, for example) for an economically important trait under selection. Economically relevant trait (ERT):  Traits that are of direct economic importance to cattle producers. Effective progeny number (EPN):  An indication of the amount of information available for estimation of expected progeny differences (EPDs) in cattle evaluation. It is a function of number of progeny of a parent but is adjusted for their distribution among herds and contemporary groups and for the number of contemporaries by other sires. EPN is less than the actual number of progeny because the distribution of progeny is never ideal. Electrophoresis:  A process used to separate DNA fragments by length. DNA fragments are placed at the top of a gel matrix that is then exposed to an electrical current. This causes fragments to migrate through the pores in the gel at rates proportional to fragment size. Resulting fragment location on the gel can be visualized by appropriate labeling techniques. Embryo transfer:  Removing fertilized ova (embryos) from one cow (the donor), generally in response to hormone-induced superovulation, and placing these embryos into other cows ( the recipients). More calves can be obtained from cows of superior breeding value by this technique Environment:  All external (nongenetic) conditions that influence the reproduction, production, and carcass merit of cattle. When environmental influences on phenotypic merit are not properly be accounted for in genetic evaluations, they reduce the accuracy of breeding value estimation and of subsequent selection. Environment Interaction:  When the difference in performance among genetic groups depends upon the environment in which they are compared. For example, the most profitable breed in the Great Plains is probably not the same as the most profitable breed on the Gulf Coast. Also, different breeds and crosses will be optimum for producing beef for different market specifications and requirements. Estimated breeding value (EBV):  An estimate of an individual's true breeding value for a trait based on the performance of the individual and close relatives for the trait itself and sometimes performance of genetically correlated traits. EBV is a systematic way of combining available performance information on the individual and sibs and the progeny of the individual. Expected progeny differences have replaced EBV's in most breed association programs. Exon:  Those regions of a gene in which the nucleotide sequence actually codes for a biologically relevant product. Expected Progeny Difference (EPD):  The difference in expected performance of future progeny of an individual, compared with expected performance of future progeny of an individual of average genetic merit in the base time frame for the genetic evaluation. EPDs are estimated from phenotypic merit of an individual and all of its relatives and are estimates of one-half the breeding values. EPDs are generally reported in units of measurement for the trait (e.g., lb., cm., etc.).
Source: Beef Improvement Federation
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